GPS Meteorology


Tropospheric delay information of GNSS microwave is estimated in GNSS processing as introduced in “Atmospheric Sensing with GPS (GNSS) “. The studied using GNSS tropospheric delay (PWV, ZTD, slant-pass delay) for meteorology is called ground-based GNSS meteorology (GPS meteorology).

On the other hand, study of GPS radio occultation of atmosphere in GPS antenna/receiver attached in low earth orbit (LEO) satellites for meteorology is called space-based GNSS meteorology. “GNSS (GPS) meteorology” covers both ground-based and space-based GNSS meteorology.

Real-time Estimates of GNSS PWV

The map above shows real-time GPS PWV of GEONET (GPS Earth Observation NETwork) of GSI, Japan. processed with RTNet software. The processing is done in a few seconds just after getting real-time streaming data for all about 1,200 GEONET stations, and conversion from ZTD to PWV is done with latency of 1 to 2 minutes. Such latency is almost similar with general meteorological sensors which also be needed to transfer observation data.

The real-time PWV data is mainly used as input for NWP (called as data assimilation). Also, researches to use real-time PWV (or ZTD) for nowcasting of moisture/precipitation have been performed. The primary contribution of GNSS tropospheric delay is weather forecast.

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